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Linux BSD 386 486 HOW-TO


Below there is a table with different 4.4BSD-based UNIX-like operating systems and their boot/install options and system requirements for x86 computers according to 386/486 compatibility:

OS, version

Boot methods

Installation source

Min CPU/RAM/HDD

Link

NetBSD 3.1.1 (07.01.2007)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD, DOS

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP

80386SX CPU, 4-16 MB RAM, 65 MB HDD *,**,***

http://archive.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-archive/NetBSD-3.1.1/

NetBSD 4.0 (12.16.2007)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD, DOS

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP

80386SX CPU, 4-16 MB RAM, 65 MB HDD ***

http://archive.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-archive/NetBSD-4.0/

OpenBSD 4.1 (05.01.2007)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP, HTTP

80386SX CPU, 12-32 MB RAM, 100 MB HDD

https://mirror.yandex.ru/openbsd/4.1/

OpenBSD 4.2 (11.01.2007)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP, HTTP

80486DX CPU, 12-32 MB RAM, 100 MB HDD

https://mirror.yandex.ru/openbsd/4.2/

OpenBSD 4.3 (05.01.2008)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP, HTTP

80486DX CPU, 24-32 MB RAM, 200 MB HDD

https://mirror.yandex.ru/openbsd/4.3/

FreeBSD 4.11 (Jan, 2005)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD ******

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP

80386 CPU, 24 MB RAM, 100MB HDD *****

http://ftp-archive.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD-Archive/old-releases/i386/4.11-RELEASE/

FreeBSD 5.5 (May 2006)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD ******

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP

80486DX CPU, 24 MB RAM, 150MB HDD ****

http://ftp-archive.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD-Archive/old-releases/i386/5.5-RELEASE/

FreeBSD 6.4 (November 2008)

PXE/LAN, CD/DVD, FDD ******

Local, CD/DVD, FS, NFS, FTP

80486DX CPU, 24 MB RAM, 150MB HDD

http://ftp-archive.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD-Archive/old-releases/i386/6.4-RELEASE/

* Installation note 1: For booting 4 Mb systems you need netbsd-INSTALL_SMALL or netbsd-INSTALL_TYNY kernel and appropriate BOOT kernel for installed system

** Installation note 2: For booting IBM PS/2 systems you need netbsd-INSTALL_PS2 kernel and appropriate BOOT kernel for installed system

*** Installation note 3: You can remove unneeeded devices from kernel reducing its size by recompiling it

**** Installation note 4: FreeBSD for the i386 requires a 486 or better processor to install and run (although FreeBSD can run on 386 processors with a custom kernel) and at least 24 MB of RAM. You will need at least 150MB of free hard drive space for the most minimal installation.

***** Installation note 5: FreeBSD for the i386 requires an 80386 or better processor. The sysinstall(8) installation program requires 16MB of RAM; after installation, FreeBSD itself can be run in 4-8MB of RAM with a pared-down kernel. You will need at least 100MB of free hard drive space for the most minimal installation; a more realistic minimum is on the order of 250-350MB.

****** Installation note 6: FreeBSD need special configured FreeBSD server to perform PXE/LAN installation.


Debian 5.0 (Lenny) , ... 8.0 Installation Tips


1. Installation source:
  1. CD/DVD/BD -ROM.
    Mount installation ISO:
    mount -t iso9660 image.iso /cdrom -o loop
    Attach content to apt database:
    # apt-cdrom add
  2. DOS partition:
    loadlin.exe linux initrd=initrd.gz
  3. PXE.
    kernel boot/debian/linux
    append raw initrd=boot/debian/initrd.gz
    or
    kernel memdisk
    append raw iso initrd=boot/debian/mini.iso
2. Additional install sources
Add "contrib" and "non-free" components to /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://archive.debian.org/debian/ distname main contrib non-free
deb-src http://archive.debian.org/debian/ distname main contrib non-free
deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-security distname/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://archive.debian.org/debian-security distname/updates main contrib non-free

where distname can be one of:

#for Debian 3.0 woody (2002-2005)
#for Debian 3.1 sarge (2005-2008)
#for Debian 4 etch (2007-2010)
#for Debian 5 lenny (2009-2012)
#for Debian 6 squeeze (2011-2015) + squeeze-lts (up to 2016)
#for Debian 7 wheezy (2013-2020)
#for Debian 8 jessy (2015-2022)
#for Debian 9 stretch (2017-2022)

3. Localization (KOI8-R, CP1251, UTF8):
# dpkg-reconfigure locales
# dpkg-reconfigure console-tools
# aptitude install console-cyrillic
# dpkg-reconfigure console-cyrillic
To test different console fonts, run:
# consolechars -f fontname.psf (prf?)
4. Packet commands:
# aptitude install packetname
# apt-get install packetname
# apt-get remove packetname
# apt-get autoclean
# apt-get autoremove
# apt-get clean
# apt-get purge
# apt-get -o Acquire::Check-Valid-Until=false update
# apt-get -o Acquire::Check-Valid-Until=false upgrade
# base
mc unzip zip samba apt-file htop neofetch console-setup
pciutils hwinfo lshw laptop-mode-tools
amd64-microcode intel-microcode
firmware-linux firmware-linux-nonfree firmware-linux-free
firmware-atheros firmware-realtek firmware-amd-graphics firmware-intel-sound
firmware-intelwimax firmware-misc-nonfree
# network
ftp ftpd ntp ssh telnet telnetd links elinks
rdesktop tightvncserver x11vnc xrdp xtightvncviewer
ethtool iftop nload bmon net-tools
hdparm smartmontools cdck wodim xorriso
mknbi (NBI boot)
# programming
gcc g++ mtools perl libc-dev nasm bcc make syslinux
mesa-common-dev libglu1-mesa-dev freeglut3-dev libglfw3-dev libgles2-mesa-dev
libgl-dev
# gui, multimedia, www
x-window-system ( or xorg ? )
synaptic lxde icewm xdm ( optional )
xfce4 xfce4-goodies lightdm netsurf midori leafpad mousepad
iceweasel iceape firefox opera chromium chromium-l10n
alsa pulseaudio mpg123 mplayer mpv youtube-dl smplayer vlc
mesa-utils wine qemu
# gaming
prboom vavoom freedoom xbill amoebax supertuxkart
5. Additional packages
$ wget -c deb.opera.com/opera/pool/non-free/o/opera/opera_12.16.1860_i386.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i opera_12.16.1860_i386.deb

$ wget -c deb.opera.com/opera/pool/non-free/o/opera/opera_12.16.1860_amd64.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i opera_12.16.1860_amd64.deb

$ sudo apt-get install -f

Copy libflashplayer.so to the plugins directory.
6. Mount physical hdd in VirtualBox (also possible in MS VirtualPC 2004)
VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename PHYSHDD.vmdk -rawdisk \\.\PhysicalDrive0
7. configure static lan with additional ip's
/etc/network/interfaces

iface eth0 inet static
        address ...
        netmask ...
        gateway ...

iface eth0:0 inet static
        address ...
        netmask ...
        gateway ...
dhcp
ifconfig eth0 up
dhclient
where eth0...1...2...n stored?
/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules
8. Disable UTC time
/etc/default/rcS: set UTC=no
or
/etc/adjtime: change UTC to LOCAL
9. NTP synchronization
apt-get install ntp
and
/etc/ntp.conf: change 'server'
10. NE2000 ISA non-pnp
sbin/modprobe ne io=0x300 irq=10
then
module is included in /etc/rc.d/rc.modules
11. Disable graphical console boot
/etc/default/grub:
GRUB_TERMINAL=console
GRUB_GFXPAYLOAD_LINUX=keep or GRUB_GFXPAYLOAD_LINUX=text
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="vga=normal nomodeset"
GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480 or GRUB_GFXMODE=text
and then use
update-grub
12. Disable mail
apt-get remove exim4* default-mta
13. make xorg.conf
# Xorg -configure
.....
Section "InputDevice" 
Identifier "Generic Keyboard" 
Driver "keyboard" 
Option "CoreKeyboard" 
Option "XkbRules" "xfree86" 
Option "XkbModel" "pc102" 
Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru(winkeys)" 
Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
EndSection
.....
Section "Device" 
Identifier "Generic Video Card"
Driver "vesa"
.....
Section "Screen"
Identifier "Default Screen" 
Device "Generic Video Card" 
Monitor "Generic Monitor" 
DefaultDepth 16 SubSection
"Display" Depth 24 
Modes "1024x768" # up to
EndSubSection 
SubSection "Display" 
.....
Section "dri"
Mode 0666
EndSection
.....

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